System Selection Guide

How to Specify

The coating specification for a project variesaccording to a large number of factors both technical and economical. There are a number of essential considerations which, taken in sequence, enable the basis of a sound specification to be laid out.

First, it is essential to know the overall objective. Is this to provide the maximum protection of valuable capital structures or equipment; the more limited protection of material during transit; the protection of easily accessible or replaceable structures, or merely for decoration.

Second, the operating conditions and environment for the project must be clearly defined and understood. For simplicity, three types of conditions can be established:

  1. Highly aggressive. Heavy industry or chemical plants, highly polluted coastal sites, off-shore and tropical environments.
  2. Medium General industrial situations, coastal sites, areas of high humidity and condensation.
  3. Mild Rural situations, some desert environments, and the interiors of buildings.

Third, it is necessary to decide on the type of paint system required, and then relate this to the type of surface and to the necessary surface preparation, e.g. is blast-cleaning feasible, or prohibited? Will alternative methods of surface preparation be adequate for the type of system required? (In cases of highly aggressive environment these requirements will decide themselves, e.g. a full epoxy system may be essential, and this is most effective over a blast-cleaned surface.)

Fourth, the final step is to draw up a specification setting out the requirements without ambiguity. It is essential to ensure that all concerned from the client to the main sub-contractors, their quantity surveyors and estimators, the painting contractor and the coating supplier fully understand what is intended.

A second painting specification comprises three main sections; a preamble, general clauses and working Clauses. The information they should convey is as follows: - Where the job is?
- What is to be painted?
- When is it to be painted?
- The brand(s) to be used?
- Conditions under which the work should be carried out?
- Limitations imposed by locations, e.g. where spray cannot be used?
- Limitations imposed by the use of a specific material, e.g. it can only be applied using a towel?
- How and by whom the work will be supervised or inspected?
- The standard of protection and/or appearance required?
- Description of the surface(s)?
- How the surface is to be prepared?
- If it is to be primed and with what?
- The finishing coat(s) and process?
- The working clauses should cover:

  1. Intervals between coats and inter-coat preparation.
  2. Wet and dry film thicknesses.
  3. Application method, e.g. airless spray.
  4. Any special instructions regarding preparation, thinning, application, equipment cleaning, etc.

While the above would adequately cover most commercial and domestic situations, the size and complexity of large projects involving the use of heavy duty coatings gives rise to other factors which must also be considered, then clearly and concisely stipulated in the specification. These include:

  1. The type and standard of surface cleaning and surface profile (for blast cleaning).
  2. The provision of adequate equipment and services for the standard of work and products specified. This must include weather protection in some climates, and heating and dehumidification plants for interior tank work.
  3. The standard of surface cleaning before coating – i.e. both after the initial surface preparation and between coats.
  4. Weather condition limitations between coatings – temperature, relative humidity and dew point.
  5. Paint systems – number of coats; minimum and maximum dry film thicknesses per coat; re-coating intervals, or other restrictions. Color – final coats and also intermediate coat color contrast.
  6. Inspection – access to site for clients, inspectors, and the coating suppliers representative. The procedure for checking and restoring any defects.
  7. On a major project, at least one planning meeting should be held prior to commencement with all concerned in the surface preparation and coating work, so that all aspects of the specification, and the method and timing of its execution are clearly defined in advance.

Protective coatings, suppliers are generally responsible people, and will be prepared to advise and recommend to their clients the most suitable and economic method of protection for his project. The importance of pre-planning and the involvement of the coating supplier at the early stage of design cannot be over-emphasized.

System Selection Guide

The aim of this preliminary guide to coating system selection is to identify environmental factors which must be considered when establishing the service demands for a coating and suggesting some application factors which may have a bearing upon the final outline of selection criteria. This will enable the specifier to converge upon a more manageable number of systems for a more detailed consideration.

1. Substrate

The primary determining factor is the substrate or surface to be coated. Most coating systems, particularly the primer, are quite specific to a particular substrate. Consequently, the Protective Coatings System Guide” has separate sections for each surface.

100 Inland
200 Industrial
300 Tropical
400 Coastal
500 Severe Industrial
600 Immersion
630 Underground
640 Tank Linings

650 Hot Surfaces

2. Environment

The second determinant is what we will term the macro environment to which the coating system will be subject. These environments have been divided geographically, depending upon the four primary atmospheric conditions affecting paint coating performance; these being humidity, intensity of UV radiation, presence of marine salts (NaCl) and finally, presence of industrial contamination of acids, alkalis or solvents.

100 Inland
200 Industrial
300 Tropical
400 Coastal
500 Severe Industrial
600 Immersion
630 Underground
640 Tank Linings 650 Hot Surfaces

3. Finished Colour

At this point aesthetics must be considered. The colour specification of the finished coat is not a factor to be left to the last moment. The colour requirements of the finished coat and whether or not it is interior or exterior, and in addition, whether it will be subject to a chemical environment, is a primary factor in the initial choice of coating types and systems.

Complete Colour Range

Enamels and PU Finishes are available in:
- RAL
- BS
- MUNSEL

B. Limited Colour Range Zinc Rich Coatings, Aluminum finishes, Coal Tar Epoxies, Red Oxide and Red Lead Primers. Most other heavy duty coatings are only available in limited colours that are detailed on respective data sheets

 


4. At this point several interdependent factors must be considered in conjunction to make the final system selection.

Application Constraints
Overspray from spray equipment may cause problems with nearby vehicles or buildings requiring coatings
that form a dry overspray dust.

Windy conditions or inability to stand off from the job will limit use of external mix guns.

Low ambient as well as very high temperatures will also be a constraint with some products.

Surface Preparation
Blast cleaning in an operating plant may be restricted due to danger of contaminating foods or dust damage to equipment.

Some coatings such as inorganic zincs can only be applied over blast cleaned steel.

Ease of Maintenance
Difficult and complicated structures should  be coated with long life systems to reduce costly repaints.

Some coatings such as chlorinated rubbers and recoatable polyurethanes are preferred as they are simple to recoat in the above situations.

In-Shop or On-Site
Shop application gives better surface preparation and control but may require use of inorganic zincs or two-pack epoxies that are resistant to damage during transport.

Equipment
Is the equipment required for the coating, available and able to be put in place on site?

Operating
Coatings such as chlorinated rubber and are not suitable for temperatures over 65°C.  Zinc rich coatings do not perform well in hot, wet conditions.

Fire Hazards
Highly flammable products may be unacceptable in which case solventless or water based (always check flash point on data sheet) coatings may be mandatory.

Single Coat or Multiple Coat
Ultra high build coatings give long term protection and avoid problems of intercoat contamination.

Inspection
Quality control means being able to test the applied system and ensure it conforms to specification. The ability to set measurable standards is important in selecting a system. Coatings, such as ultra high build polyesters and epoxies, lend themselves to “user” quality control. No longer do you have to rely on the paint suppliers quality control.


Kansai Protective Coating System

The “Protective Coating System Guide” will help you determine suitable protective coating systems for most situations. It is helpful to first read the “System Selection Guide” to determine the basic criteria that will need to be established in system selection. The Coating System Guide lists a number of typical environments encountered in the Industrial, Mining and Marine Offshore fields.

For each environment, a number of systems are suggested depending on finish, surface preparation, expected service life and suitability for on-site or off-site application.

The systems listed are typical examples, and by no means the only systems that may be suitable.

Geographical Location

The KANSAI Protective Coatings Guide has been geographically divided as follows:

100 Inland Locations – Arid – Chemically Free.
200 Industrial – Mild Chemical.
300 Tropical– High Humidity Intense Sunlight.
400 Coastal.
500 Severe Industrial.
500 – acid                                540 – solvents
520 – alkali                              640 – tank linings

It is strongly recommended that no final decision on coating systems is made without reference to the KANSAI Protective Coatings Sales Consultants in your region. They are fully trained to assess your environment and needs and kept up to date with the latest coatings and corrosion technology.

Download Kansai Protective Coating System Manual


Systems for Steel Surfaces

100 CHEMICALLY FREE ENVIRONMENT

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

Abrade / Power Tool

Full
Colour Range

Red Oxide Alkyd Primer
Red Oxide Alkyd Primer
Synthetic Enamel
Synthetic Enamel

25
25
25
25

ST

Low cost, economical package. Decorative and easily recoated

Abrade / Power Tool

Full
Colour Range

Red Lead Primer
Red Lead Primer
Synthetic Enamel
Synthetic Enamel

25
25
25
25

ST

Popular system for short term industrial coverage

Abrade / Power Tool

Full
Colour Range

Red Oxide Alkyd Zinc Chromate Primer
Synthetic Enamel
Synthetic Enamel

25

25
25

ST

Convenient system for short term industrial coverage.

Abrade / Power Tool

Full
Colour Range

Anti-corrosive Red Lead Graphite Primer
Synthetic Enamel
Synthetic Enamel

25

25
25

ST

Conventional oil based system

2 ½

Full
Colour Range

Red Oxide Alkyd Zinc Phosphate Primer.
Synthetic Enamel
Synthetic Enamel

25

25
25

ST

Good Durability, Gloss enamel finish. Single Pack, all mineral turps thinnable

Abrade

Grey/Red Oxide

Hi-Build Epoxy Zinc Phosphate Primer

50

MT

Single coat lock-out primer/finish. Longer term protection obtained with class 21/2 blast

2 ½

Full
Colour Range

Hi-Build Epoxy Zinc Phosphate Primer.
PU Finish

50
50

LT

High gloss, hard durable system. Easily re-coated.

 

200 LIGHT INDUSTRIAL – MILD CHEMICAL

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

2 ½

Grey

Ethyl Zinc Silicate Primer

75

ST

One Coat Protection, More economical than galvanising for all but small sections

2 ½

Red & Grey

Hi-Build Epoxy Zinc Phosphate Primer.

50

ST

One coat primer finish

2 ½

Full
Colour Range

Epoxy Zinc Phosphate Primer
Kemoble C/R Finish
Kemobel C/R Finish

50

25
25

MT

Excellent moisture resistance and weatherability. Easily recoated.

2 ½
(25-45 u profile)

Full
Colour Range

Ethyl Zinc Silicate Primer.
PU Finish
PU Finish

75

50
50

LT

Conventional Galvanic protection with easy to use, reliable epoxy build coats finished with recoatable urethane for colour and long life protection

2 ½

Full Colour Range

Hi-Build Epoxy Zinc Phosphate Primer
PU Finish
PU Finish

50

50
50

LT

High gloss interior/exterior coating with excellent weatherability.

2 ½

Full
Colour Range

Hi-Build Epoxy Zinc Rich Primer
Epoxy MIO.
PU Finish.

75

100
50

VLT

Broad Color Range available and long term resistance to UV radiation

300 TROPICAL – HIGH HUMIDITY/SUNLIGHT

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

2 ½

Full
Colour Range

Hi –Build Epoxy Zinc Rich Primer.
Kemobel C/R Thick coating
Kemobel C/R finish

75

75

25

LT

Decorative, easily re-coated single pack topcoat system for more corrosive areas.

2 ½ (25-45 u profile)

Full
Colour Range

Ethyl Zinc Silicate Primer
Epoxy Ultra build 125
PU Finish

75

125
50

VLT

Conventional galvanic protection with easy use, reliable epoxy build coats finished with recoatable urethane for colour for long life protection.

400 COASTAL – LIGHT INDUSTRIAL AND MARINE EXPOSURE

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

2 ½

Full
Colour Range

Hi-Build Epoxy Zinc Phosphate Primer
Kemobel Epoxy Finish
Kemobel Epoxy Finish

50

25
25

MT

Long term protection, high gloss, hard, easily coated

2 ½ (25-45 u profile)

Full
Colour Range

Ethyl Zinc Silicate Primer
Epoxy Ultra build 125
PU Finish

75

       125
50

LT

Conventional galvanic protection with easy use, reliable epoxy build coats finished with recoatable urethane for colour for long life protection.

                                               

500 INDUSTRIAL – MILD ACIDIC ENVIRONMENT

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

2 ½

Full
Colour Range

Hi build Epoxy Zinc Phosphate Primer
Polyurethane finish

50

50

Note 4

High gloss, hard wearing coating with good acid resistance

2 ½

Full
Colour Range

Kemoble C/R Metal Primer
Kemobel C/R Thick Coating
Kemobel C/R finish Kemobel C/R finish

25

75

25
25

Note 4

Single pack system with good acid resistance.

2 ½ (25-45 u profile)

Full
Colour Range

Ethyl Zinc Silicate Primer
Epoxy Ultra build 125
PU Finish

75

125
50

LT

Conventional galvanic protection with easy use, reliable epoxy build coats finished with recoatable urethane for colour for long life protection.

 

520 INDUSTRIAL - ALKALI

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

2 ½

Limited Colour Range

Hi-Build Epoxy Zinc Phosphate Primer
Ultra build Liner
Ultra build Liner

50

125
125

Note 4

Excellent high build alkali resistant system.

 

540 INDUSTRIAL - SOLVENTS

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

3 (25-45 u profile)

White, Grey,
Black

Ultra build Liner
Ultra build Liner
Ultra build Liner
 

125
125
125

LT

Very popular, self priming and long lasting system.

 

600 WATER IMMERSION

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

3 (25-45 u profile)

White, Grey,
Black

Ultra build Liner
Ultra build Liner
Ultra build Liner

125
125
125

LT

Self priming, long lasting system.

 

630 UNDERGROUND – BURIED PIPELINES

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

3

Black

Coal tar  Epoxy C-200
Coal tar  Epoxy C-200
Coal tar  Epoxy C-200

150
150
150

LT

Long lasting finish with Hi Build protection.

                                               

640 TANK LINING SYSTEMS

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

Aluminum

Linalux Primer
Linalux Intermediate Coat
Linalux Finish
Linalux Finish

35

60
60
60

MT

Well proven system with good performance under difficult conditions.

Limited Color Range

Epoxy Tank Lining Paint
Epoxy Tank Lining Paint
Epoxy Tank Lining Paint

125
125
125

LT

Excellent for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and refined petroleum products. Resists splash and spillage of most solvents

3

White, Grey,
Black

Ultra build Liner
Ultra build Liner
Ultra build Liner

125
125
125

LT

Self priming, long lasting system.

650 HIGH HEAT - DRY

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

Aluminum

Ethyl Zinc Silicate Primer
Alkyd Aluminum Finish
Alkyd Aluminum Finish

75

25
25

MT

Cost effective aluminum finish suitable for medium temperatures.

2 / Abrade

Aluminum

Heat resistant Aluminum silicon
Heat resistant Aluminum silicon

25

25

Note 4

Oleoresins aluminum finish suitable
upto 600 C

Abrade

Grey

Zinc Dust Graphite H/R Coating
Zinc Dust Graphite H/R Coating

40

40

Note 4

Two coat system with proven performance

2 ½

Aluminum

Ethyl Zinc Silicate Primer
Heat resistant Aluminum silicon
Heat resistant Aluminum silicon

75

25

25

Note 4

Higher build system with high temperature resistance

 

Systems for Zinc Coated Surfaces

Zinc coated surfaces include hot dip zinc coated steel, electrolytic zinc coated sheet and hot zinc sprayed metal. Zinc metal protects steel sacrificially. Zinc metal coatings are not recommended in acid or alkali industrial conditions and are rapidly dissipated in a marine environment.

As zinc is alkaline in reaction the prime coating applied to the surface must be resistant to saponification. Epoxies, chlorinated rubber, acrylics and, to a lesser extent, vinyl etch primers are satisfactory.

320 LIGHT INDUSTRIAL - COASTAL

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

Abrade

Full Colour Range

Hi-Build Epoxy Zinc Phosphate Primer
Kemoble C/R Finish

50

25

MT

Two coat system with glossy durable finish

660 WATER - IMMERSION

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

Brush/Blast

Black

Coal tar epoxy C-200
Coal tar epoxy C-200
Coal tar epoxy C-200

150
150
150

LT

Long lasting finish with high build protection

Brush/Blast

White
Grey
Black

Ultra build Liner
Ultra build Liner
Ultra build Liner

125
125
125

LT

Self priming long lasting system


670 UNDERGROUND OR WET CONDITIONS

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

Brush/Blast

Black

Coal tar epoxy C-200
Coal tar epoxy C-200
Coal tar epoxy C-200

150
150
150

LT

Long lasting finish with high build protection

Brush/Blast

Black

Hi-Build Epoxy Zinc Rich Primer
Coal tar epoxy C-200
Coal tar epoxy C-200
Coal tar epoxy C-200

75

150
150
150

LT

CTE system with polyamide cured organic primer for extended life.

 

Systems for Concrete and Masonary Surfaces

Concrete including cement render is generally corroded by the action of acidic materials, whether carbonic acid from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere or sulfuric acid from anaerobic bacteria in sewerage lines. Cementious substrates are alkali and as with zinc, the prime coat must be resistant to soaponification by alkali. In marine areas it is vital to ensure chloride ion does not penetrate to reinforcing or severe spoiling of concrete will occur.

 

130 INLAND – ARID AND LIGHT INDUSTRIAL

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

Acid Etching/Slight Grinding/Abrade

Limited Color Range

Epoxy Floor & Concrete Coating
Epoxy Floor & Concrete Coating
Epoxy Floor & Concrete Coating

40

40

40

MT

Utility system. Good organic acid resistance. Specifially used as a floor coating system.

Remove loose surfaces and etch galvanized surfaces

Full Color Range

Kemobel Concrete Primer
Kemobel Thick coating
Kemobel Finish

25

75

25

MT

Utility system. Good resistance to salt spray and also spillage and fumes of acids and alkaline solutions.

 

530 ACID OR ALKALI OR SOLVENT INDUSTIAL CONDITIONS - UNDERGROUND

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

Brush/Blast

White
Grey
Black

Ultra build –125
Ultra build –125
Ultra build –125

150
150
150

LT

Self priming, long lasting system.

 

760 IMMERSION –WATER OR SEWERAGE OR MARINE

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

Brush/Blast

Black

Coal tar Epoxy C-200
Coal tar Epoxy C-200
Coal tar Epoxy C-200

150
150
150

MT

Long lasting finish with high build protection

Systems for Timber

MINIMUM SURFACE PREPARATION1

FINAL COLOUR

COATING SYSTEM

D.F.T. micrometers

DATA SHEET

SYSTEM LIFE

FEATURES

Sand

Full Colour Range

NC wood sealer
NC wood finish

5
20

NC01
NC02

ST

High gloss exterior system. Good acid resistance

Sand

Full
Colour
Range

PU Finish
PU Finish

25
25

PU01

MT

High gloss exterior durable finish